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Southern cuisine is quite common across the state.

ISBN 13: 9781934110218

Western Kentucky is famous for a regional style of southern barbecue, and other forms of southern food such as catfish, country ham, greens beans etc. In most contexts, especially culturally, the state is grouped as part of the south. Meanwhile Asheville and its surrounding area has tended to attract more progressively minded transplants due to its longstanding reputation as a center of liberal thought and open-minded attitudes, and retirees due to its scenic mountain setting. A report released by the Brookings Institution in May entitled Diversity Spreads Out , noted that the Charlotte metro area ranked second nationally with a The Raleigh-Durham metro area followed in third place with a Settlement of the Oklahoma territory began as a direct result of the Civil War, with southerners escaping Reconstruction populating the southeastern region of the state, now commonly referred to as "Little Dixie".

Because of its size and unique history, particularly having once been Mexican territory, and later a nation in its own right i. It has been described as "a Southern state, certainly, yet not completely in or of the South. Geographic, economic and cultural diversity among regions of the state preclude treating Texas as a region in its own right. Notable extremes range from East Texas , which is often considered an extension of the Deep South , to Far West Texas , which is generally acknowledged to be part of the interior Southwest.

The former has much in common both culturally and geographically with Midwestern states like Kansas and Nebraska. The South Plains, though originally settled primarily by Anglo Southerners, has become a blend of both Southern and Southwestern culture due to rapidly increasing Hispanic population. The larger cities of Texas, such as Austin , Dallas and Houston —with their burgeoning knowledge-based economies—have attracted migrants from other regions of the United States, particularly the Midwest and West Coast.

Combined with the influence of increasing numbers from an African American New Great Migration , [62] Latin America and Asia, the historic "Southern culture" has been transformed. However—partly due to its membership in the Confederacy and history as part of the Solid South —and the fact much of the state is in the Bible Belt —it is usually considered more of a Southern than a Western state. Also, linguistic maps of Texas place most of it within the spheres of upper, mid- and Gulf- Southern dialects , helping to further identify the state as being essentially Southern use of Southern colloquialisms such as y'all and ain't are still very much widespread in Texas.

However, Northern Virginia , Richmond, and the Hampton Roads region have attracted many internal migrants coming for job opportunities with the federal government, military, and related businesses during and after World War II, due to the emergence and expansion of the Northeast Megalopolis. More expansion resulted from the dot-com bubble around the start of the 21st century. Economically linked to Washington, D.

Virginian culture was spread across the Chesapeake region during colonial times by settlers and strongly influenced the culture of the lowland south through the transport of slaves.

Virginia's coastal areas were heavily plantation based, relying on tobacco. Prior to the Civil War, Virginia was the largest slave state and profited greatly from breeding and selling slaves to the Deep South. Following the Civil War and Reconstruction, Virginia went through the dark period of Jim Crow and faced the era of Massive Resistance to school desegregation.

They were known early on for having large Free Black, Quaker, and Jewish populations, lots of industry, and significant immigration from Eastern Europe up until the civil war in which Richmond was made the Confederate capital against its wishes. Modern Virginia has seen an ongoing tendency for Northeasterners who move to the state to identify separately from the rest of the South politically and culturally. West Virginia was formed during the American Civil War in from 50 western counties of Virginia and is currently composed of 55 counties.

Many of the counties in the new state had supported Virginia and the Confederacy during the war but were included for territorial reasons, which resulted in a "Redeemer" government in Many legacies of its Virginia heritage remain, such as county and local place names.


The state constitution is based on the antebellum constitution of Virginia. As recently as an Virginia statute was used in a county prosecution. West Virginia was the last slave state admitted to the Union. The state legislature consists of a senate and a house of delegates. It is the 7th most Protestant state and the 7th most religious state in the United States.

West Virginia has a high rate of family owned farms and the state produces large numbers of poultry, corn, apples and peaches. Many southern dishes are common in the state; biscuits and sausage gravy, chicken and dumplings, sweet tea, cornbread and beans and condiments such as cole slaw and chow chow accompany barbecued meats. The southern diet has been blamed for health problems such as obesity and diabetes and smoking is among the highest rates in the United States. Charleston is one of the highest per capita markets for country music. Similar to other Border States , Maryland has regions that are culturally Southern.

However, economic growth and demographic shifts of the s, s and s overshadowed Maryland's Southern culture. The growing service economy and ensuing southward migration of New Englanders and more solidly Northeastern workers transformed the I corridor and the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area into robustly Mid-Atlantic areas. After the election of Barack Obama the Washington region has refused to be identified as Southern leading Southern Maryland to consider secession but ultimately siding with the state.

Portions of Maryland, specifically Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore of Maryland remain largely culturally Southern, driven by agriculture and commercial fishing. Most of the land is rural and there are but a few large population centers. Many local restaurants in those two areas still serve sweet tea and dishes including or composed entirely of greens in addition to menus heavy with fried food. Many dialectic studies show that St. Western Maryland is considered Appalachian, and remains largely rural.

That region is very similar to the neighboring West Virginia, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Missouri is classified as a Midwestern state by the Census Bureau and some of its residents.

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Louis was known as the "Gateway to the West" when settlement was expanding. The northern edge of the Ozark Plateau was settled chiefly by mid-to-late 19th century German immigrants, however, who founded numerous vineyards and wineries. Due to this, Missouri was the second-largest wine-producing state before Prohibition, which destroyed the industry. Wineries have been rebuilt since the later decades of the 20th century, and Missouri wineries are competing well in national festivals.

Part of the Missouri River valley, from beyond St. Louis suburbs in St.

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Charles County to east of Jefferson City , is known as the Missouri Rhineland because of the extensive vineyards and wineries based on German immigrant tradition and descendants. In the antebellum years, many settlers from Upper South states such as Virginia and Kentucky migrated to the counties of central and western Missouri along the Missouri River, where they could cultivate tobacco and hemp.

Because these southerners brought their culture and slaveholding with them, Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slaveholding state.

Roots of a Region: Southern Folk Culture

In modern times, this area became known as Little Dixie. All the crops grown there today are corn, soybeans and wheat, for which the area was better suited than for Southern crops like cotton or tobacco. Rural southern Missouri in the Ozark Plateau and the bootheel are definitively southern in culture.

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Many areas of New Mexico , Arizona and California were predominantly settled by European American southerners as they moved west in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For instance, pro-Confederate governments were established in what is now Arizona and New Mexico during the Civil War and, at one point, southern California was on the cusp of breaking away from northern California and joining the Confederacy. In the aftermath of the Civil War, several freedmen's towns were founded by emancipated African Americans from the south.

These "Okie" and "Arkie" migrants and their descendants remain a strong influence on the culture of the Central Valley of California, especially around the cities of Bakersfield and Fresno. More than 6. As a result, many African Americans as well as European Americans have "Northern" and "Southern" branches of their families. Significant parts of African-American culture, such as music, literary forms and cuisine, have been rooted in the South but have changed with urban northern and western influences, too.

As an important feature of Southern culture, the cuisine of the South is often described as one of its most distinctive traits. Popular sayings include "Food is Love" and "If it ain't fried it ain't cooked" [ citation needed ]. Southern culinary culture has readily adopted Native American influences. Corn meal cereal known as " grits ", cornfritters, cornbread and brunswick stew are a few of the more common examples of foods adopted directly from southeastern Indians.

Nevertheless, a great many regional varieties have also developed. The variety of cuisines range from Tex-Mex cuisine , Cajun and Creole , traditional antebellum fare, all types of seafood, and Carolina, Virginia which shares strong similarities with North Carolina and Memphis styles of Barbecue. Traditional African American Southern food is often called soul food.

While not typically as spicy as cajun food, it incorporates a variety of herbs, flour, and can also be called stick-to-your-ribs food [ citation needed ]. Of course, most Southern cities and even some smaller towns now offer a wide variety of cuisines of other origins such as Chinese , Italian , French , Middle Eastern , as well as restaurants still serving primarily Southern specialties, so-called "home cooking" establishments.

Some notable "home cooking" meals include: fried chicken , corn on the cob , greens with pot liquor , vegetable stew, chicken and dumplings, and chicken fried steak.